After Perthshire, Fife was the county most populated by Oliphants. Those in the East Neuk (east) of the county were almost certainly descendants of the Kellie branch. most lived around Pittenweem, St. Andrews and Cupar. Others were prevelant in Burntisland and Saline. The landed Oliphant branches in this county were at Kellie, Prinlaws, Pittotter, and Murdocarnie (also known as Hillcarnie,) all of whom were descended from the Oliphants of Kellie (Castle.) Also in the county were the Oliphants of Kinneddar who were descended from the Oliphants of Condie.

Helena Siward, who was known as "Lady Kellie" and was a cousin, was in possesion of the lands prior to any Oliphant. By 1360 she had transferred the lands to Sir Walter Olifard, who was married to Robert the Bruce's daughter, Elizabeth. It was about this time that the earliest part of Kellie Castle was built, making it the second oldest building to survive that was built by Oliphants, after the Donjon at Bothwell which was built a century before. A couple of generations later the land was granted to a cadet branch of the family which became known as the Oliphants of Kellie. The Kellie branch controlled these lands until the mid 16th Century when they passed to the 4th Lord Oliphant. They were sold along with Kellie Castle to the Erskine family in the early 1600's.

Kellie was a thanage in ancient times, and whilst MacBeth was never Thane of Glamis, he was Thane of Kellie.

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